Congress shall make no regulation respecting an establishment of faith, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the proper of the individuals peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Authorities for a redress of grievances. For instance, the Universities and University Schools Act forbids college students from political activities on campus with out linking the restraint to public order, and many others. Even symbolic speech like the style of one’s dressing and grooming can be treated as part of one’s freedom of expression: Juzaili Mohd Khamis (2015).
On this cluster of interrelated subjects, there appears to be a robust worldwide consensus that the rules of freedom of expression are both overridden or irrelevant when what is being expressed is racial, ethnic, or non secular hatred. As well as, under article 19(three) freedom of expression could also be restricted as provided for by regulation and when necessary to guard the rights or reputations of others, nationwide safety, public order, or public health or morals.
2) Act 1986 ensures freedom of speech (within institutions of additional schooling and institutions of upper education) as long as it is within the legislation (see section … Read More